Greece’s Shifting Position
on Turkish Accession to the EU
Before and After Helsinki

Dimitrios Lucas


MA in European Studies

Catholic University of Leuven

Leuven, Belgium


Promoter: Prof. Dr. Laurent Van Depoele
Second Reader: Professor Frank Delmartino

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1. Greece’s Early Position on Turkey’s EC (EU) Application: 1987-1995

     1.1 The Turkish Application to the EC: Crisis & Rapprochement

     1.2 The First European “No” and the New Greek Government’s Policy

     1.3 The Western European Union (WEU) and the Casus Belli

     1.4 The EU-Turkey Customs Union Agreement


2. Period of Crisis: 1996-1999

     2.1 1996 Imia (Kardak Crisis)

     2.2 The Cyprus Missile Problem, the Madrid Declaration and the 1997 Luxembourg Summit

         2.2.1 The Cyprus Missile Crisis

         2.2.2 The NATO Summit & 1997 Luxembourg European Council Summit

     2.3 The Final Crisis: The Öcalan Affair


3. From Crisis to Rapprochement: The Helsinki Summit 1999

     3.1 The Road Towards Helsinki

     3.2 The Earthquakes of the Summer of 1999

     3.3 The Helsinki European Council Summit-December 1999

     3.4 Reasons for the “Great Realignment” in Greece’s Policy Towards Turkey


4. Beyond Helsinki: Solidifying Relations 2000-2002

     4.1 Stabilising Relations: The Helsinki Aftermath

     4.2 A Reminder of the Problems Ahead and the USA/NATO Factor

     4.3 Greece’s Role in the EU-Turkey Accession Partnership

     4.4 Cooperation and Challenges Leading to the Copenhagen Summit

     4.5 The 2002 Copenhagen European Council Summit

         4.5.1 A Short Update: 2003-2004






List of Abbreviations




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