The Representation of Violence
in Finnish (Press-) Photography
of the Finnish Civil War.


Maarten Patteeuw


Scriptie voorgelegd aan de Faculteit Letteren en Wijsbegeerte,
voor het behalen van de graad van
Licentiaat in de Geschiedenis.

Academiejaar: 2002-2003

Universiteit Gent

Promotor: Prof. Dr. B. De Wever


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Defining the field of study

    1. From Grand Duchy over civil war to an independent state: Finnish society in the
                    beginning of the 20th century

        1.1 Finland before 1917

            1.1.1 The structure of Finnish society before 1917

            1.1.2 The impact of the March Revolution of 1917

            1.1.3 The Finnish October elections and its consequences

            1.1.4 The Russian October Revolution

        1.2 The Civil War: Red and White Finland

            1.2.1 Red Finland

            1.2.2 White Finland

            1.2.3 The origins of the deep scars of Finnish society: The Atrocities of the Civil War

    2. Status Questiones

    3. Research Questions

    4. Definition of the chronological boundaries


Part 1: Methodological framework for the critical approach to images within the media and as primary sources for historical research

    0. Introduction

    1. Essential notions for the interpretation of different methods of communication

    2. (Press-) Photography as a historical source

         2.1 A short technical history of photography

             2.1.1 From dry plate to Kodak

             2.1.2 The reproduction of photography and the printed media

             2.1.3 The colour photography process

    3. Camera Lucida?: Towards a methodology for photography as a historical source

        3.1 The possibilities of photography for (interdisciplinary) historical research

        3.2 Photography and the notion of objectivity

        3.3 A methodological framework for the analysis of (press-) photography

            3.3.1 An introduction for image-analysis : Visual Historical Methods

       The elements of meaning in Historical Images

       The Variables of visual analysis

            3.3.2 Composition and its Meanings

    4. Media Analysis

        4.1 Basic media principles

        4.2 Ideology and Discourse

        4.3 Hegemony

    5. The Status of the Archives

        5.1 The Archives as a ‘construction’

        5.2 The state of the (photo-) archives in Finland

    6. Principles of New Media for Historical Research

        6.1 A Short History of New Media

        6.2 The Principles of New Media


Part 2: The notion of violence and its visual representation

    1. Defining violence

         1.1 Norbert Elias’ Theory of Civilization

             1.1.1 The Civilizing Theory

             1.1.2 Extensions of the theory by Jonathan Fletcher

             1.1.3 The concept of violence

         1.2 George Mosse – The Brutalisation of European Societies

    2. The representation of violence in armed conflicts: the photographic evolution
                    from the Crimean War to the Spanish Civil War

         2.1 The origins of war photography – The Crimean War

         2.2 The American Civil War (1861-1865)

         2.3 The First World War – German photography at the front

         2.4 Germany after the First World War: The Spartacus League (1918-1919)

         2.5 The Spanish Civil War 1936-1939

             2.5.1 The Photo-essay and the new style of reporting

             2.5.2 The Pro-Republican press

             2.5.3 The Pro-Insurgent press

             2.5.4 The representation of the war in the international press

    3. The Evolution of Violence in Finland

         3.1 Violence in Finland in the 19th and 20th century

         3.2 Finland and the post-civil war period

         3.3 Re-framing Ylikangas

    4. The representation of Fininish Civil War and other armed conflicts in Suomen Kuvalehti

         4.1 The origin of Finnish periodicals and Suomen Kuvalehti

         4.2 Suomen Kuvalehti circulation numbers

         4.3 The coverage of international events in Suomen Kuvalehti before the Civil War

         4.4 The photographic representation of violence in SK: 1916-1920

         4.5 Photography of the civil war in Suomen Kuvalehti



Part 3: The Finnish Civil War and the photographic representation of violence

    1. Photography in Finland

         1.1 The early years and the founding of Fotografiamatörklubben i Helsingfors

         1.2 Internationalization in the early 20th century

    2. Photography of the Civil War

         2.1 The representations of executions

         2.2 The representation of the fallen (Red) soldier

         2.3 The fall of Tampere through the objective

    3. Application of the theoretical approach: Images of the Finnish Civil War

         3.1 Drawing a concrete line between the Reds and the Whites – Suomen Kuvalehti

         3.2 Taking communal revenge – Kansan Arkisto


General Conclusion


Part 4: CD ROM Finnish Civil War Photography


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