Het nucleaire non-proliferatie regime. Een Beschrijving en Evaluatie na de Koude Oorlog. (Katrien Hadermann)

 

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Bijlagen

 

Bijlage 1. Tekst van het Non-Proliferatie Verdrag

 

Signed at Washington, London, and Moscow July 1, 1968
Ratification advised by U.S. Senate March 13, 1969
Ratified by U.S. President November 24, 1969
U.S. ratification deposited at Washington, London, and Moscow March 5, 1970
Proclaimed by U.S. President March 5, 1970
Entered into force March 5, 1970

 

The States concluding this Treaty, hereinafter referred to as the "Parties to the Treaty",

Considering the devastation that would be visited upon all mankind by a nuclear war and the consequent need to make every effort to avert the danger of such a war and to take measures to safeguard the security of peoples,

Believing that the proliferation of nuclear weapons would seriously enhance the danger of nuclear war,

In conformity with resolutions of the United Nations General Assembly calling for the conclusion of an agreement on the prevention of wider dissemination of nuclear weapons,

Undertaking to cooperate in facilitating the application of International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards on peaceful nuclear activities,

Expressing their support for research, development and other efforts to further the application, within the framework of the International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards system, of the principle of safeguarding effectively the flow of source and special fissionable materials by use of instruments and other techniques at certain strategic points,

Affirming the principle that the benefits of peaceful applications of nuclear technology, including any technological by-products which may be derived by nuclear-weapon States from the development of nuclear explosive devices, should be available for peaceful purposes to all Parties of the Treaty, whether nuclear-weapon or non-nuclear weapon States,

Convinced that, in furtherance of this principle, all Parties to the Treaty are entitled to participate in the fullest possible exchange of scientific information for, and to contribute alone or in cooperation with other States to, the further development of the applications of atomic energy for peaceful purposes,

Declaring their intention to achieve at the earliest possible date the cessation of the nuclear arms race and to undertake effective measures in the direction of nuclear disarmament,

Urging the cooperation of all States in the attainment of this objective,

Recalling the determination expressed by the Parties to the 1963 Treaty banning nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water in its Preamble to seek to achieve the discontinuance of all test explosions of nuclear weapons for all time and to continue negotiations to this end,

Desiring to further the easing of international tension and the strengthening of trust between States in order to facilitate the cessation of the manufacture of nuclear weapons, the liquidation of all their existing stockpiles, and the elimination from national arsenals of nuclear weapons and the means of their delivery pursuant to a Treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control,

Recalling that, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, States must refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any State, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations, and that the establishment and maintenance of international peace and security are to be promoted with the least diversion for armaments of the worlds human and economic resources,

Have agreed as follows:

 

Article I

Each nuclear-weapon State Party to the Treaty undertakes not to transfer to any recipient whatsoever nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices or control over such weapons or explosive devices directly, or indirectly; and not in any way to assist, encourage, or induce any non-nuclear weapon State to manufacture or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices, or control over such weapons or explosive devices.

 

Article II

Each non-nuclear-weapon State Party to the Treaty undertakes not to receive the transfer from any transferor whatsoever of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices or of control over such weapons or explosive devices directly, or indirectly; not to manufacture or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices; and not to seek or receive any assistance in the manufacture of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices.

 

Article III

1. Each non-nuclear-weapon State Party to the Treaty undertakes to accept safeguards, as set forth in an agreement to be negotiated and concluded with the International Atomic Energy Agency in accordance with the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Agencys safeguards system, for the exclusive purpose of verification of the fulfillment of its obligations assumed under this Treaty with a view to preventing diversion of nuclear energy from peaceful uses to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. Procedures for the safeguards required by this article shall be followed with respect to source or special fissionable material whether it is being produced, processed or used in any principal nuclear facility or is outside any such facility. The safeguards required by this article shall be applied to all source or special fissionable material in all peaceful nuclear activities within the territory of such State, under its jurisdiction, or carried out under its control anywhere.

2. Each State Party to the Treaty undertakes not to provide: (a) source or special fissionable material, or (b) equipment or material especially designed or prepared for the processing, use or production of special fissionable material, to any non-nuclear-weapon State for peaceful purposes, unless the source or special fissionable material shall be subject to the safeguards required by this article.

3. The safeguards required by this article shall be implemented in a manner designed to comply with article IV of this Treaty, and to avoid hampering the economic or technological development of the Parties or international cooperation in the field of peaceful nuclear activities, including the international exchange of nuclear material and equipment for the processing, use or production of nuclear material for peaceful purposes in accordance with the provisions of this article and the principle of safeguarding set forth in the Preamble of the Treaty.

4. Non-nuclear-weapon States Party to the Treaty shall conclude agreements with the International Atomic Energy Agency to meet the requirements of this article either individually or together with other States in accordance with the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Negotiation of such agreements shall commence within 180 days from the original entry into force of this Treaty. For States depositing their instruments of ratification or accession after the 180-day period, negotiation of such agreements shall commence not later than the date of such deposit. Such agreements shall enter into force not later than eighteen months after the date of initiation of negotiations.

 

Article IV

1. Nothing in this Treaty shall be interpreted as affecting the inalienable right of all the Parties to the Treaty to develop research, production and use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes without discrimination and in conformity with articles I and II of this Treaty.

2. All the Parties to the Treaty undertake to facilitate, and have the right to participate in, the fullest possible exchange of equipment, materials and scientific and technological information for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Parties to the Treaty in a position to do so shall also cooperate in contributing alone or together with other States or international organizations to the further development of the applications of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, especially in the territories of non-nuclear-weapon States Party to the Treaty, with due consideration for the needs of the developing areas of the world.

 

Article V

Each party to the Treaty undertakes to take appropriate measures to ensure that, in accordance with this Treaty, under appropriate international observation and through appropriate international procedures, potential benefits from any peaceful applications of nuclear explosions will be made available to non-nuclear-weapon States Party to the Treaty on a nondiscriminatory basis and that the charge to such Parties for the explosive devices used will be as low as possible and exclude any charge for research and development. Non-nuclear-weapon States Party to the Treaty shall be able to obtain such benefits, pursuant to a special international agreement or agreements, through an appropriate international body with adequate representation of non-nuclear-weapon States. Negotiations on this subject shall commence as soon as possible after the Treaty enters into force. Non-nuclear-weapon States Party to the Treaty so desiring may also obtain such benefits pursuant to bilateral agreements.

 

Article VI

Each of the Parties to the Treaty undertakes to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective measures relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race at an early date and to nuclear disarmament, and on a Treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control.

 

Article VII

Nothing in this Treaty affects the right of any group of States to conclude regional treaties in order to assure the total absence of nuclear weapons in their respective territories.

 

Article VIII

1. Any Party to the Treaty may propose amendments to this Treaty. The text of any proposed amendment shall be submitted to the Depositary Governments which shall circulate it to all Parties to the Treaty. Thereupon, if requested to do so by one-third or more of the Parties to the Treaty, the Depositary Governments shall convene a conference, to which they shall invite all the Parties to the Treaty, to consider such an amendment.

2. Any amendment to this Treaty must be approved by a majority of the votes of all the Parties to the Treaty, including the votes of all nuclear-weapon States Party to the Treaty and all other Parties which, on the date the amendment is circulated, are members of the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The amendment shall enter into force for each Party that deposits its instrument of ratification of the amendment upon the deposit of such instruments of ratification by a majority of all the Parties, including the instruments of ratification of all nuclear-weapon States Party to the Treaty and all other Parties which, on the date the amendment is circulated, are members of the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Thereafter, it shall enter into force for any other Party upon the deposit of its instrument of ratification of the amendment.

3. Five years after the entry into force of this Treaty, a conference of Parties to the Treaty shall be held in Geneva, Switzerland, in order to review the operation of this Treaty with a view to assuring that the purposes of the Preamble and the provisions of the Treaty are being realized. At intervals of five years thereafter, a majority of the Parties to the Treaty may obtain, by submitting a proposal to this effect to the Depositary Governments, the convening of further conferences with the same objective of reviewing the operation of the Treaty.

 

Article IX

1. This Treaty shall be open to all States for signature. Any State which does not sign the Treaty before its entry into force in accordance with paragraph 3 of this article may accede to it at any time.

2. This Treaty shall be subject to ratification by signatory States. Instruments of ratification and instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Governments of the United States of America, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which are hereby designated the Depositary Governments.

3. This Treaty shall enter into force after its ratification by the States, the Governments of which are designated Depositaries of the Treaty, and forty other States signatory to this Treaty and the deposit of their instruments of ratification. For the purposes of this Treaty, a nuclear-weapon State is one which has manufactured and exploded a nuclear weapon or other nuclear explosive device prior to January 1, 1967.

4. For States whose instruments of ratification or accession are deposited subsequent to the entry into force of this Treaty, it shall enter into force on the date of the deposit of their instruments of ratification or accession.

5. The Depositary Governments shall promptly inform all signatory and acceding States of the date of each signature, the date of deposit of each instrument of ratification or of accession, the date of the entry into force of this Treaty, and the date of receipt of any requests for convening a conference or other notices.

6. This Treaty shall be registered by the Depositary Governments pursuant to article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.

 

Article X

1. Each Party shall in exercising its national sovereignty have the right to withdraw from the Treaty if it decides that extraordinary events, related to the subject matter of this Treaty, have jeopardized the supreme interests of its country. It shall give notice of such withdrawal to all other Parties to the Treaty and to the United Nations Security Council three months in advance. Such notice shall include a statement of the extraordinary events it regards as having jeopardized its supreme interests.

2. Twenty-five years after the entry into force of the Treaty, a conference shall be convened to decide whether the Treaty shall continue in force indefinitely, or shall be extended for an additional fixed period or periods. This decision shall be taken by a majority of the Parties to the Treaty.

 

Article XI

This Treaty, the English, Russian, French, Spanish and Chinese texts of which are equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the Depositary Governments. Duly certified copies of this Treaty shall be transmitted by the Depositary Governments to the Governments of the signatory and acceding States.

 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, duly authorized, have signed this Treaty.

 

DONE in triplicate, at the cities of Washington, London and Moscow, this first day of July one thousand nine hundred sixty-eight.

 

 

Bijlage 2: Status van het Additionele Protocol van het IAEA op 19/07/2005

 

Strengthened Safeguards System: States with Additional Protocols

 

State

Board Approval

Date signed

In Force

1.

Afghanistan

1 March 2005

19 July 2005

19 July 2005

2.

Albania

16 June 2004

2 December 2004

 

3.

Algeria

14 September 2004

 

 

4.

Andorra

7 December 2000

9 January 2001

 

5.

Armenia

23 September 1997

29 September 1997

28 June 2004

6.

Australia

23 September 1997

23 September 1997

12 December 1997

7.

Austria

11 June 1998

22 September 1998

30 April 2004

8.

Azerbaijan

7 June 2000

5 July 2000

29 November 2000

9.

Bangladesh

25 September 2000

30 March 2001

30 March 2001

10.

Belgium

11 June 1998

22 September 1998

30 April 2004

11.

Benin

17 September 2004

7 June 2005

 

12.

Bulgaria

14 September 1998

24 September 1998

10 October 2000

13.

Burkina Faso

18 March 2003

17 April 2003

17 April 2003

14.

Cameroon

16 June 2004

16 December 2004

 

15.

Canada

11 June 1998

24 September 1998

8 September 2000

16.

Cape Verde

16 June 2005

28 June 2005

 

17.

Chile

10 September 2002

19 September 2002

3 November 2003

18.

China

25 November 1998

31 December 1998

28 March 2002

19.

Comoros

16 June 2005

 

 

20.

Costa Rica

29 November 2001

12 December 2001

 

21.

Colombia

25 November 2004

11 May 2005

 

22.

Croatia

14 September 1998

22 September 1998

6 July 2000

23.

Cuba

9 September 2003

18 September 2003

3 June 2004

24.

Cyprus

25 November 1998

29 July 1999

19 February 2003

25.

Czech Republic

20 September 1999

28 September 1999

1 July 2002

26.

Democratic Republic of the Congo

28 November 2002

9 April 2003

9 April 2003

27.

Denmark

11 June 1998

22 September 1998

30 April 2004

28.

Ecuador

20 September 1999

1 October 1999

24 October 2001

29.

El Salvador

23 September 2002

5 September 2003

24 May 2004

30.

Estonia

21 March 2000

13 April 2000

 

31.

Fiji

16 June 2005

 

 

32.

Finland

11 June 1998

22 September 1998

30 April 2004

33.

France

11 June 1998

22 September 1998

30 April 2004

34.

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

16 June 2005

12 July 2005

 

35.

Gabon

18 March 2003

8 June 2005

 

36.

Georgia

23 September 1997

29 September 1997

3 June 2003

37.

Germany

11 June 1998

22 September 1998

30 April 2004

38.

Ghana

11 June 1998

12 June 1998

11 June 2004

39.

Greece

11 June 1998

22 September 1998

30 April 2004

40.

Guatemala

29 November 2001

14 December 2001

 

41.

Ha´ti

20 March 2002

10 July 2002

 

42.

Holy See

14 September 1998

24 September 1998

24 September 1998

43.

Honduras

16 June 2005

7 July 2005

 

44.

Hungary

25 November 1998

26 November 1998

4 April 2000

45.

Iceland

9 September 2003

12 September 2003

12 September 2003

45.

Indonesia

20 September 1999

29 September 1999

29 September 1999

47.

Iran, Islamic Rep. Of

21 November 2003

18 December 2003

*

48.

Ireland

11 June 1998

22 September 1998

30 April 2004

49.

Italy

11 June 1998

22 September 1998

30 April 2004

50.

Jamaica

12 June 2002

19 March 2003

19 March 2003

51.

Japan

25 November 1998

4 December 1998

16 December 1999

52.

Jordan

18 March 1998

28 July 1998

28 July 1998

53.

Kazakhstan

18 June 2003

6 February 2004

 

54.

Kiribati

10 September 2002

9 November 2004

 

55.

Kuwait

12 June 2002

19 June 2002

2 June 2003

56.

Latvia

7 December 2000

12 July 2001

12 July 2001

57.

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

9 March 2004

10 March 2004

*

58.

Liechtenstein

16 June 2005

 

 

59.

Lithuania

8 December 1997

11 March 1998

5 July 2000

60.

Luxembourg

11 June 1998

22 September 1998

30 April 2004

61.

Madagascar

18 June 2003

18 September 2003

18 September 2003

62.

Mali

10 September 2002

12 September 2002

12 September 2002

63.

Malta

28 November 2002

24 April 2003

12 July 2005

64.

Marshall Islands

1 March 2005

3 May 2005

3 May 2005

65.

Mauritania

18 March 2003

2 June 2003

 

66.

Mauritius

14 September 2004

9 December 2004

 

67.

Mexico

12 March 2004

29 March 2004

 

68.

Monaco

25 November 1998

30 September 1999

30 September 1999

69.

Mongolia

11 September 2001

5 December 2001

12 May 2003

70.

Morocco

16 June 2004

22 September 2004

 

71.

Namibia

21 March 2000

22 March 2000

 

72.

Netherlands

11 June 1998

22 September 1998

30 April 2004

73.

New Zealand

14 September 1998

24 September 1998

24 September 1998

74.

Nicaragua

12 June 2002

18 July 2002

18 February 2005

75.

Niger

9 March 2004

11 June 2004

 

76.

Nigeria

7 June 2000

20 September 2001

 

77.

Norway

24 March 1999

29 September 1999

16 May 2000

78.

Palau

1 March 2005

13 May 2005

13 May 2005

79.

Panama

29 November 2001

11 December 2001

11 December 2001

80.

Paraguay

12 June 2002

24 March 2003

14 September 2004

81.

Peru

10 December 1999

22 March 2000

23 July 2001

82.

Philippines

23 September 1997

30 September 1997

 

83.

Poland

23 September 1997

30 September 1997

5 May 2000

84.

Portugal

11 June 1998

22 September 1998

30 April 2004

85.

Republic of Korea (ROK)

24 March 1999

21 June 1999

19 February 2004

86.

Romania

9 June 1999

11 June 1999

7 July 2000

87.

Russia

21 March 2000

22 March 2000

 

88.

Senegal

1 March 2005

 

 

89.

Serbia and Montenegro

14 September 2004

 

 

90.

Seychelles

18 March 2003

7 April 2004

13 October 2004

91.

Slovakia

14 September 1998

27 September 1999

 

92.

Slovenia

25 November 1998

26 November 1998

22 August 2000

93.

South Africa

12 June 2002

13 September 2002

13 September 2002

94.

Spain

11 June 1998

22 September 1998

30 April 2004

95.

Sweden

11 June 1998

22 September 1998

30 April 2004

96.

Switzerland

7 June 2000

16 June 2000

1 February 2005

97.

Tajikistan

12 June 2002

7 July 2003

14 December 2004

98.

Tanzania

16 June 2004

23 September 2004

7 February 2005

99.

Togo

22 September 2003

26 September 2003

 

100.

Tunisia

1 March 2005

24 May 2005

 

101.

Turkey

7 June 2000

6 July 2000

17 July 2001

102.

Turkmenistan

1 March 2005

17 May 2005

 

103.

Uganda

25 November 2004

14 June 2005

 

104.

Ukraine

7 June 2000

15 August 2000

 

105.

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

11 June 1998

22 September 1998

30 April 2004

106.

United States of America

11 June 1998

12 June 1998

 

107.

Uruguay

23 September 1997

29 September 1997

30 April 2004

108.

Uzbekistan

14 September 1998

22 September 1998

21 December 1998

TOTALS

 

108

102

69

* The Islamic Republic of Iran and Libyan Arab Jamahiriya have pledged to apply their Additional Protocols pending entry into force.

1 The Agency also applies safeguards, including the measures foreseen in the Model Additional Protocol, in Taiwan, China. Pursuant to a decision by the Board, the relations between the Agency and the authorities in Taiwan, China are non-governmental.

 

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